Nükleer Santral Nedir Nükleer Santral Tanımı

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Nükleer Santral Nedir Nükleer Santral Tanımı

Bir Nükleer santral, bir veya daha fazla nükleer reaktörün yakıt olarak radyoaktif maddeleri kullanarak, elektrik enerji üreten tesise denir. Radyoaktif maddeler kullanılmasından dolayı diğer santrallerden farklı ve daha sıkı güvenlik önlemlerini, teknolojileri içerisinde barındırır.

Çalışma prensibi (yüzeysel)
Reaktörün kalbinde, elde edilen ısıl enerji suya aktarılır, su almış olduğu bu enerji sebebiyle faz değiştirir ve kızgın buhar haline dönüşür. Elde edilen bu buhar daha sonra elektrik jeneratörüne bağlı olan buhar türbinine verilir. Su buharı, türbin mili üzerinde bulunan türbin kanatları üzerinden geçerken daha önceden almış olduğu ısıl enerjiyi kullanarak, türbin milini döndürür.

Bu mekanik dönme hareketi sonucunda alternatörlerde elektrik elde edilir. Jeneratörde oluşan elektrik ise iletim hatları denilen iletken teller ile kullanılacağı yere gönderilir. Türbinden çıkan, ısıl enerjisi yani sahip olduğu basınç ve sıcaklığı düşmüş olan buhar, tekrar kullanılmak üzere yoğuşturucuda (kondenser) yoğuşturulup su haline dönüştürüldükten sonra, tekrar reaktörün kalbine gönderilir. Yoğuşturucuda su buharının faz değişimini yapabilmek için çevrede bulunan deniz, göl gibi su kaynaklarını soğutucu olarak kullanır.

Santrallerdeki fisyon reaksiyonu
Bir nötronun, uranyum gibi ağır bir element atomunun çekirdeğine çarparak yutulması, bunun sonucunda bu atomun kararsız hale gelerek daha küçük iki ayrı çekirdeğe bölünmesi tepkimesidir. Fisyon sonucunda ortaya çıkan nötronların, ortamda bulunmakta olan diğer fisyon yapabilen atomların çekirdekleri tarafından yutularak, onları da aynı tepkimeye sokması ve bunun ardışık olarak tekrarlanmasıdır.

Bunun sonucunda, ortaya çok büyük enerji açığa çıkar. Kontrolsüz bir tepkime çok güçlü ve ölümcül olabilir, bu nedenle reaktörlerde kullanılan kontrol elemanları bu fazla nötronları yutar ve bölünmenin kontrollu olarak sürmesi sağlanır.

Fisyon yapılabilecek elementler sadece U-235 ile sınırlı değildir. Zira reaktörlerde nötronların etkisi sonucu Toryum'dan türeyen Uranyum-233 ile Uranyum-238 den türeyen Plutonyum-239 ve 241 de fisyon yapan elementler olup reaktörlerde yakıt olarak kullanılabilmektedir.

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