Proteinlerin Görevleri

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Proteinlerin Görevleri

Proteinler,canlıda hem yapının oluşmasında hem de pek çok görevin yapılmasında doğrudan etkilidir.Hücrelerin kendine özgü özelliklerini kazandıran maddeler,yapılarını oluşturan protein çeşitleridir.Hücrede gerçekleşen hücresel olayların yapılması da proteinlerle sağlanır.

Proteinlerin başlıca görevleri aşağıdaki gibi sıralanır

İşlevsel yönden proteinlerin görevleri,oluşturdukları enzimlerle biyolojik biyokimyasal reaksiyonları yürütmeleridir.Canlıda gerçekleşen her reaksiyon farklı proteinlerin oluşturdukları ayrı enzimlerle yürütülür.

Örneğin;ATP,DNA,RNA gibi farklı moleküller farklı enzimlerle yapılır.

Kan şekerinin ayarlanmasını sağlayan insülin,glukagon gibi çoğu hormonlar protrinlerin yapısındadır.Bu nedenle hormonları oluşturan proteinler düzenleyici görev yaparlar.

Proteinler,hücre içinde ve hücre dışında önemli yapı maddeleridir.Bağ doku lifleri,kıl ve derideki keratin,önemli hücre dışı protrinlerdendir.

Hücre içinde elektronların taşınması,çekirdekle stoplazma arasında madde taşınması hücreler ve organlar arasında madde taşıması gibi taşıma görevleri yaparlar.

Örneğin;insan vücudunda oksijen ve karbon dioksidin taşınması,proteinlerin oluşturduğu hemoglobinlerle sağlanır.

Hayvanlarda kasların kasılmasını gerçekleştirir.Kaslardaki kasılmayı sağlayan aktin ve miyozin,proteinden yapılmış ipliklerdir.

Hayvan vücudunda hastalık yapan toksinlerle vücuda yabancı olan maddelere ve mikroplara karşı vücudun ürettiği interferon bir proteindir.

Proteinler,hücrelerin madde alışverişini sağlayan ozmotik basıncın oluşmasında etkilidir.

Örneğin;doku hücrelerinden kılcal kan damarlarına madde geçmesini,kandaki proteinlerin olşturduğu”protein ozmotik basıncı” sağlar.

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